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Fruits and Vegetables: A Source of Dietary Fiber and Antioxidants

In order to encourage retail stores that sell raw fruits, vegetables, and fish to participate in the voluntary point-of-purchase nutrition information program (21 CFR 101.42 through 101.45), FDA has created downloadable posters for printing.

The Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) provides all children in participating schools with a variety of free fresh fruits and vegetables throughout the school day. It is an effective and creative way of introducing fresh fruits and vegetables as healthy snack options. The FFVP also encourages schools to develop partnerships at the state and local level for support in implementing and operating the program.

fruits and vegetables pdf

The following data were obtained from the clinical trials: author, study year, journal, number of participants included per arm, losses per arm, gender, mean age, ethnicity, intervention in each arm (type and quantity of fruits and vegetables consumed), inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, randomization, blinding, follow-up, adjustments for confounding factors, primary outcomes (hazard ratio (HR) of fractures), and secondary outcomes (mean BMD (standard deviation, SD) for each arm or linear regression, and mean bone markers (SD) for each arm).

In the present study, we did not include studies that evaluated the Mediterranean, vegetarian, Vegan, lactose-free, or other specific dietary patterns. These studies were excluded as they involved diets that are not only based on fruits and vegetables but also on peas, beans, chickpeas, lentils, oilseeds, lean meats, and other foods. Moreover, some of these diets are very restrictive, excluding dairy products, meat, and other foods. Therefore, they cannot be used to compare other people who do not have healthy eating habits without generating a confusion bias.

There are several mechanisms by which the intake of fruits and vegetables could have beneficial effect on bone metabolism. The classic hypothesis regarding intake of fruits and vegetables would slightly alter the basic acid balance in alkaline favor [42]. This mild alkalization could increase calcium reabsorption through the renal tubules, which would reflect a decrease in bone loss [42]. More recently, the role of fruits and vegetables in oxidative stress has been discussed [43]. The consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a greater reduction-oxidation (REDOX) capacity [44], which would increase the capacity of bone remodeling [44], which would increase the capacity of bone remodeling [45], improving bone repair capacity and reducing bone loss [45]. Finally, some studies have described an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic inflammatory conditions [46, 47]. These chronic inflammatory states are associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures [48, 49].

Our results show that a diet dense in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures. Moreover, all observational studies included in the analysis were adjusted for confounding factors such as body mass index, age, gender, total nutrient intake, calcium and vitamin D, education, and diabetes. These adjustments suggest that the effect of fruit and vegetable intake might be independent of other health habits.

The wrong smell, color or texture can turn kids off to fruits and vegetables. Avoid strong smells, drab colors and mushy textures. Serve vegetables raw or cooked tender-crisp. Combine vegetables with favorite foods like low-fat cheese.


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